Error Handling in Streams

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Recovering from Failure

When working with streams that may encounter errors, it's crucial to know how to handle these errors gracefully. The Stream.orElse function is a powerful tool for recovering from failures and switching to an alternative stream in case of an error.

Here's a practical example:

ts
import { Stream, Effect } from "effect"
 
const s1 = Stream.make(1, 2, 3).pipe(
Stream.concat(Stream.fail("Oh! Error!")),
Stream.concat(Stream.make(4, 5))
)
 
const s2 = Stream.make("a", "b", "c")
 
const stream = Stream.orElse(s1, () => s2)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
Output:
{
_id: "Chunk",
values: [ 1, 2, 3, "a", "b", "c" ]
}
*/
ts
import { Stream, Effect } from "effect"
 
const s1 = Stream.make(1, 2, 3).pipe(
Stream.concat(Stream.fail("Oh! Error!")),
Stream.concat(Stream.make(4, 5))
)
 
const s2 = Stream.make("a", "b", "c")
 
const stream = Stream.orElse(s1, () => s2)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
Output:
{
_id: "Chunk",
values: [ 1, 2, 3, "a", "b", "c" ]
}
*/

In this example, s1 encounters an error, but instead of terminating the stream, we gracefully switch to s2 using Stream.orElse. This ensures that we can continue processing data even if one stream fails.

There's also a variant called Stream.orElseEither that uses the Either data type to distinguish elements from the two streams based on success or failure:

ts
import { Stream, Effect } from "effect"
 
const s1 = Stream.make(1, 2, 3).pipe(
Stream.concat(Stream.fail("Oh! Error!")),
Stream.concat(Stream.make(4, 5))
)
 
const s2 = Stream.make("a", "b", "c")
 
const stream = Stream.orElseEither(s1, () => s2)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
Output:
{
_id: "Chunk",
values: [
{
_id: "Either",
_tag: "Left",
left: 1
}, {
_id: "Either",
_tag: "Left",
left: 2
}, {
_id: "Either",
_tag: "Left",
left: 3
}, {
_id: "Either",
_tag: "Right",
right: "a"
}, {
_id: "Either",
_tag: "Right",
right: "b"
}, {
_id: "Either",
_tag: "Right",
right: "c"
}
]
}
*/
ts
import { Stream, Effect } from "effect"
 
const s1 = Stream.make(1, 2, 3).pipe(
Stream.concat(Stream.fail("Oh! Error!")),
Stream.concat(Stream.make(4, 5))
)
 
const s2 = Stream.make("a", "b", "c")
 
const stream = Stream.orElseEither(s1, () => s2)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
Output:
{
_id: "Chunk",
values: [
{
_id: "Either",
_tag: "Left",
left: 1
}, {
_id: "Either",
_tag: "Left",
left: 2
}, {
_id: "Either",
_tag: "Left",
left: 3
}, {
_id: "Either",
_tag: "Right",
right: "a"
}, {
_id: "Either",
_tag: "Right",
right: "b"
}, {
_id: "Either",
_tag: "Right",
right: "c"
}
]
}
*/

The Stream.catchAll function provides advanced error handling capabilities compared to Stream.orElse. With Stream.catchAll, you can make decisions based on both the type and value of the encountered failure.

ts
import { Stream, Effect } from "effect"
 
const s1 = Stream.make(1, 2, 3).pipe(
Stream.concat(Stream.fail("Uh Oh!" as const)),
Stream.concat(Stream.make(4, 5)),
Stream.concat(Stream.fail("Ouch" as const))
)
 
const s2 = Stream.make("a", "b", "c")
 
const s3 = Stream.make(true, false, false)
 
const stream = Stream.catchAll(
s1,
(error): Stream.Stream<string | boolean> => {
switch (error) {
case "Uh Oh!":
return s2
case "Ouch":
return s3
}
}
)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
Output:
{
_id: "Chunk",
values: [ 1, 2, 3, "a", "b", "c" ]
}
*/
ts
import { Stream, Effect } from "effect"
 
const s1 = Stream.make(1, 2, 3).pipe(
Stream.concat(Stream.fail("Uh Oh!" as const)),
Stream.concat(Stream.make(4, 5)),
Stream.concat(Stream.fail("Ouch" as const))
)
 
const s2 = Stream.make("a", "b", "c")
 
const s3 = Stream.make(true, false, false)
 
const stream = Stream.catchAll(
s1,
(error): Stream.Stream<string | boolean> => {
switch (error) {
case "Uh Oh!":
return s2
case "Ouch":
return s3
}
}
)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
Output:
{
_id: "Chunk",
values: [ 1, 2, 3, "a", "b", "c" ]
}
*/

In this example, we have a stream, s1, which may encounter two different types of errors. Instead of a straightforward switch to an alternative stream, as done with Stream.orElse, we employ Stream.catchAll to precisely determine how to handle each type of error. This level of control over error recovery enables you to choose different streams or actions based on the specific error conditions.

Recovering from Defects

When working with streams, it's essential to be prepared for various failure scenarios, including defects that might occur during stream processing. To address this, the Stream.catchAllCause function provides a robust solution. It enables you to gracefully handle and recover from any type of failure that may arise.

Here's an example to illustrate its usage:

ts
import { Stream, Effect } from "effect"
 
const s1 = Stream.make(1, 2, 3).pipe(
Stream.concat(Stream.dieMessage("Boom!")),
Stream.concat(Stream.make(4, 5))
)
 
const s2 = Stream.make("a", "b", "c")
 
const stream = Stream.catchAllCause(s1, () => s2)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
Output:
{
_id: "Chunk",
values: [ 1, 2, 3, "a", "b", "c" ]
}
*/
ts
import { Stream, Effect } from "effect"
 
const s1 = Stream.make(1, 2, 3).pipe(
Stream.concat(Stream.dieMessage("Boom!")),
Stream.concat(Stream.make(4, 5))
)
 
const s2 = Stream.make("a", "b", "c")
 
const stream = Stream.catchAllCause(s1, () => s2)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
Output:
{
_id: "Chunk",
values: [ 1, 2, 3, "a", "b", "c" ]
}
*/

In this example, s1 may encounter a defect, but instead of crashing the application, we use Stream.catchAllCause to gracefully switch to an alternative stream, s2. This ensures that your application remains robust and continues processing data even in the face of unexpected issues.

Recovery from Some Errors

In stream processing, there may be situations where you need to recover from specific types of failures. The Stream.catchSome and Stream.catchSomeCause functions come to the rescue, allowing you to handle and mitigate errors selectively.

If you want to recover from a particular error, you can use Stream.catchSome:

ts
import { Stream, Effect, Option } from "effect"
 
const s1 = Stream.make(1, 2, 3).pipe(
Stream.concat(Stream.fail("Oh! Error!")),
Stream.concat(Stream.make(4, 5))
)
 
const s2 = Stream.make("a", "b", "c")
 
const stream = Stream.catchSome(s1, (error) => {
if (error === "Oh! Error!") {
return Option.some(s2)
}
return Option.none()
})
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
Output:
{
_id: "Chunk",
values: [ 1, 2, 3, "a", "b", "c" ]
}
*/
ts
import { Stream, Effect, Option } from "effect"
 
const s1 = Stream.make(1, 2, 3).pipe(
Stream.concat(Stream.fail("Oh! Error!")),
Stream.concat(Stream.make(4, 5))
)
 
const s2 = Stream.make("a", "b", "c")
 
const stream = Stream.catchSome(s1, (error) => {
if (error === "Oh! Error!") {
return Option.some(s2)
}
return Option.none()
})
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
Output:
{
_id: "Chunk",
values: [ 1, 2, 3, "a", "b", "c" ]
}
*/

To recover from a specific cause, you can use the Stream.catchSomeCause function:

ts
import { Stream, Effect, Option, Cause } from "effect"
 
const s1 = Stream.make(1, 2, 3).pipe(
Stream.concat(Stream.dieMessage("Oh! Error!")),
Stream.concat(Stream.make(4, 5))
)
 
const s2 = Stream.make("a", "b", "c")
 
const stream = Stream.catchSomeCause(s1, (cause) => {
if (Cause.isDie(cause)) {
return Option.some(s2)
}
return Option.none()
})
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
Output:
{
_id: "Chunk",
values: [ 1, 2, 3, "a", "b", "c" ]
}
*/
ts
import { Stream, Effect, Option, Cause } from "effect"
 
const s1 = Stream.make(1, 2, 3).pipe(
Stream.concat(Stream.dieMessage("Oh! Error!")),
Stream.concat(Stream.make(4, 5))
)
 
const s2 = Stream.make("a", "b", "c")
 
const stream = Stream.catchSomeCause(s1, (cause) => {
if (Cause.isDie(cause)) {
return Option.some(s2)
}
return Option.none()
})
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
Output:
{
_id: "Chunk",
values: [ 1, 2, 3, "a", "b", "c" ]
}
*/

Recovering to Effect

In stream processing, it's crucial to handle errors gracefully and perform cleanup tasks when needed. The Stream.onError function allows us to do just that. If our stream encounters an error, we can specify a cleanup task to be executed.

ts
import { Stream, Console, Effect } from "effect"
 
const stream = Stream.make(1, 2, 3).pipe(
Stream.concat(Stream.dieMessage("Oh! Boom!")),
Stream.concat(Stream.make(4, 5)),
Stream.onError(() =>
Console.log(
"Stream application closed! We are doing some cleanup jobs."
).pipe(Effect.orDie)
)
)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
Output:
Stream application closed! We are doing some cleanup jobs.
error: RuntimeException: Oh! Boom!
*/
ts
import { Stream, Console, Effect } from "effect"
 
const stream = Stream.make(1, 2, 3).pipe(
Stream.concat(Stream.dieMessage("Oh! Boom!")),
Stream.concat(Stream.make(4, 5)),
Stream.onError(() =>
Console.log(
"Stream application closed! We are doing some cleanup jobs."
).pipe(Effect.orDie)
)
)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
Output:
Stream application closed! We are doing some cleanup jobs.
error: RuntimeException: Oh! Boom!
*/

Retry a Failing Stream

Sometimes, streams may encounter failures that are temporary or recoverable. In such cases, the Stream.retry operator comes in handy. It allows you to specify a retry schedule, and the stream will be retried according to that schedule.

Here's an example to illustrate how it works:

ts
import { Stream, Effect, Schedule } from "effect"
import * as NodeReadLine from "node:readline"
 
const stream = Stream.make(1, 2, 3).pipe(
Stream.concat(
Stream.fromEffect(
Effect.gen(function* (_) {
const s = yield* _(readLine("Enter a number: "))
const n = parseInt(s)
if (Number.isNaN(n)) {
return yield* _(Effect.fail("NaN"))
}
return n
})
).pipe(Stream.retry(Schedule.exponential("1 seconds")))
)
)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
Output:
Enter a number: a
Enter a number: b
Enter a number: c
Enter a number: 4
{
_id: "Chunk",
values: [ 1, 2, 3, 4 ]
}
*/
 
const readLine = (message: string): Effect.Effect<string> =>
Effect.promise(
() =>
new Promise((resolve) => {
const rl = NodeReadLine.createInterface({
input: process.stdin,
output: process.stdout
})
rl.question(message, (answer) => {
rl.close()
resolve(answer)
})
})
)
ts
import { Stream, Effect, Schedule } from "effect"
import * as NodeReadLine from "node:readline"
 
const stream = Stream.make(1, 2, 3).pipe(
Stream.concat(
Stream.fromEffect(
Effect.gen(function* (_) {
const s = yield* _(readLine("Enter a number: "))
const n = parseInt(s)
if (Number.isNaN(n)) {
return yield* _(Effect.fail("NaN"))
}
return n
})
).pipe(Stream.retry(Schedule.exponential("1 seconds")))
)
)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
Output:
Enter a number: a
Enter a number: b
Enter a number: c
Enter a number: 4
{
_id: "Chunk",
values: [ 1, 2, 3, 4 ]
}
*/
 
const readLine = (message: string): Effect.Effect<string> =>
Effect.promise(
() =>
new Promise((resolve) => {
const rl = NodeReadLine.createInterface({
input: process.stdin,
output: process.stdout
})
rl.question(message, (answer) => {
rl.close()
resolve(answer)
})
})
)

In this example, the stream asks the user to input a number, but if an invalid value is entered (e.g., "a," "b," "c"), it fails with "NaN." However, we use Stream.retry with an exponential backoff schedule, which means it will retry after a delay of increasing duration. This allows us to handle temporary errors and eventually collect valid input.

Refining Errors

When working with streams, there might be situations where you want to selectively keep certain errors and terminate the stream with the remaining errors. You can achieve this using the Stream.refineOrDie function.

Here's an example to illustrate how it works:

ts
import { Stream, Option } from "effect"
 
const stream = Stream.fail(new Error())
 
const res = Stream.refineOrDie(stream, (error) => {
if (error instanceof SyntaxError) {
return Option.some(error)
}
return Option.none()
})
ts
import { Stream, Option } from "effect"
 
const stream = Stream.fail(new Error())
 
const res = Stream.refineOrDie(stream, (error) => {
if (error instanceof SyntaxError) {
return Option.some(error)
}
return Option.none()
})

In this example, stream initially fails with a generic Error. However, we use Stream.refineOrDie to filter and keep only errors of type SyntaxError. Any other errors will be terminated, while SyntaxErrors will be retained in refinedStream.

Timing Out

When working with streams, there are scenarios where you may want to handle timeouts, such as terminating a stream if it doesn't produce a value within a certain duration. In this section, we'll explore how to manage timeouts using various operators.

timeout

The Stream.timeout operator allows you to set a timeout on a stream. If the stream does not produce a value within the specified duration, it terminates.

ts
import { Stream, Effect } from "effect"
 
const stream = Stream.fromEffect(Effect.never).pipe(
Stream.timeout("2 seconds")
)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
{
_id: "Chunk",
values: []
}
*/
ts
import { Stream, Effect } from "effect"
 
const stream = Stream.fromEffect(Effect.never).pipe(
Stream.timeout("2 seconds")
)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
{
_id: "Chunk",
values: []
}
*/

timeoutFail

The Stream.timeoutFail operator combines a timeout with a custom failure message. If the stream times out, it fails with the specified error message.

ts
import { Stream, Effect } from "effect"
 
const stream = Stream.fromEffect(Effect.never).pipe(
Stream.timeoutFail(() => "timeout", "2 seconds")
)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log, console.error)
/*
{
_id: "FiberFailure",
cause: {
_id: "Cause",
_tag: "Fail",
failure: "timeout"
}
}
*/
ts
import { Stream, Effect } from "effect"
 
const stream = Stream.fromEffect(Effect.never).pipe(
Stream.timeoutFail(() => "timeout", "2 seconds")
)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log, console.error)
/*
{
_id: "FiberFailure",
cause: {
_id: "Cause",
_tag: "Fail",
failure: "timeout"
}
}
*/

timeoutFailCause

Similar to Stream.timeoutFail, Stream.timeoutFailCause combines a timeout with a custom failure cause. If the stream times out, it fails with the specified cause.

ts
import { Stream, Effect, Cause } from "effect"
 
const stream = Stream.fromEffect(Effect.never).pipe(
Stream.timeoutFailCause(() => Cause.die("timeout"), "2 seconds")
)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log, console.error)
/*
{
_id: "FiberFailure",
cause: {
_id: "Cause",
_tag: "Die",
defect: "timeout"
}
}
*/
ts
import { Stream, Effect, Cause } from "effect"
 
const stream = Stream.fromEffect(Effect.never).pipe(
Stream.timeoutFailCause(() => Cause.die("timeout"), "2 seconds")
)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log, console.error)
/*
{
_id: "FiberFailure",
cause: {
_id: "Cause",
_tag: "Die",
defect: "timeout"
}
}
*/

timeoutTo

The Stream.timeoutTo operator allows you to switch to another stream if the first stream does not produce a value within the specified duration.

ts
import { Stream, Effect } from "effect"
 
const stream = Stream.fromEffect(Effect.never).pipe(
Stream.timeoutTo("2 seconds", Stream.make(1, 2, 3))
)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
{
_id: "Chunk",
values: [ 1, 2, 3 ]
}
*/
ts
import { Stream, Effect } from "effect"
 
const stream = Stream.fromEffect(Effect.never).pipe(
Stream.timeoutTo("2 seconds", Stream.make(1, 2, 3))
)
 
Effect.runPromise(Stream.runCollect(stream)).then(console.log)
/*
{
_id: "Chunk",
values: [ 1, 2, 3 ]
}
*/